India’s hotel market is a growth market, and the country’s tourism and hospitality industry which contributed about 9.6% to India’s GDP in 2016, has emerged as a key growth driver of India’s service sector and thereby the Indian economy.
India’s hotel industry as a whole has been going through a relatively rough patch over the past few years with distressed loans from the sector jumping 63% over the past three years as a result of overinvestment, cost overruns, and high interest rates among other reasons, which have restricted capital flow into the industry and reduced hotel real estate transactions in the past few years.
However, there are numerous fundamental reasons to be optimistic on the industry’s long term prospects, particularly in the mid-scale and budget segment which have not been affected by the financial woes plaguing the luxury and upscale hotel segment. The Development Cost Per Key declines considerably the lower the hotel class, and coupled with robust demand from India’s growing wave of middle class domestic travelers, India’s mid-scale and budget hotel segments have been doing brisk business, a boon to their bottom lines.
India’s expanding population of middle class travelers have also helped boost Indian hotel occupancy rates which have been on an uptrend over the past few years, rising to 66% in 2017, the highest since 2007-2008, according to a report by hospitality consulting firm Horwath HTL.
The momentum is expected to continue. However, with hotel demand exceeding supply (according to data from Hotelivate, Indian hotel demand is growing at around 12% while new supply is growing by up to 6% annually) and with hotel rooms per capita in India standing at just 18 per 100,000 people, considerably lower than China where there are 307 hotel rooms per 100,000 people, there is ample potential for expansion in India’s hotel sector driven by a growing middle class, rising disposable incomes, a growing fleet of low cost airlines and government measures to boost the country’s tourism industry such as the UDAN Regional Connectivity Scheme, and incentives such as the five year tax holiday offered for 2, 3 and 4 star category hotels located around UNESCO World Heritage sites (except Delhi and Mumbai) and the establishment of Special Tourism Zones. Further encouraging measures may be expected in the country’s upcoming Tourism Policy as the Indian government works towards its target of attracting 20 million Foreign Tourist Arrivals by 2020 and thereby addressing the country’s imbalance of outbound tourists being four times more than inbound tourists.
India is expected to be one of the fastest growing tourism economies over the next decade and the country is forecast to emerge as the world’s 3rd biggest tourism economy by 2028 according to a 2018 report by the World Travel and Tourism Council. According to forecasts by CARE Ratings, India’s hotel industry is expected to see an increase of 11-13% CAGR in room revenues during FY2017-FY2021. The Indian hotel market is projected to reach US$ 13 billion by 2020 according to a paper by FICCI-Yes Bank titled ‘Tourism Infrastructure Investments: Leveraging Partnerships for Exponential Growth’.
Unsurprisingly, global hotel operators are increasingly keen on expanding into India to grab a slice of the growing pie. International hotel brands already account for about half of India’s 123,000 branded hotel rooms, a dramatic increase in market share since 2002 when international hotel brands accounted for less than 20% of the 25,000 branded hotel rooms in India. By 2020, international hotel brands are expected to account for about 76% of India’s branded hotel room supply according to Patu Keswani, chairman and managing director, Lemon Tree Hotels.
Land scarcity and high development costs in Delhi and Mumbai are likely to encourage upscale hotel developers to focus on Tier II and Tier III markets
For several years after the global financial crisis in 2008, India’s luxury hotel sector struggled with an oversupply of hotel inventory and poor demand leading to lower occupancy and Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR).
However, the tide may be turning as signs of a demand recovery and a limited supply pipeline push up occupancy levels, particularly in India’s top two hotel markets, Delhi and Mumbai where occupancy rates reached 75% and 70% respectively during 2016-2017, thanks to increasing business and leisure travellers, and a muted hotel room supply.
During the year ended March 2017, new hotel rooms in Delhi increased by just 1.1% compared to a CAGR of 5.3% over the past decade. The situation is the same in Mumbai where new hotel rooms increased 3.4% in 2016-2017, compared to a 5.3% growth over the past decade.
Yet, while rising demand in India’s top cities of Mumbai and Delhi may lure hotel developers, problems such as land scarcity, and zoning laws among other reasons are likely to continue restricting new hotel room supply going forward. While the difficulties may not hinder the expansion plans of some luxury hotel operators such as Jumeirah (which is planning to launch an upscale business hotel in Mumbai), other hotel operators may go down the acquisition route instead, which could drive up acquisition demand for existing hotel assets in these two cities, as high development costs may compel players looking to ride the tourist boom in Delhi and Mumbai to pay a premium for brownfield and existing hotel assets rather than developing new hotels.
With much of India’s luxury hotel room inventory concentrated in NCR, Mumbai and Bengaluru, developers are also likely to explore untapped opportunities in Tier II and Tier III cities such as Jaipur, Goa and Ahmedabad where occupancy rates and RevPAR have shown strong growth. According to JLL India’s 2017 report, Goa remained India’s most expensive hotel market for the second consecutive year, while Ahmedabad enjoyed the strongest RevPAR of 21% followed by Jaipur at 12.2%.
Marriott, currently India’s largest hotel by room inventory, appears to have spotted the potential; the hotel group has plans to expand its current Indian hotel portfolio of around 120 with the addition of 50 new hotels, which will add another 12,000 rooms to its current tally of more than 22,000 rooms in India. In addition to Tier I cities, the company is looking at opportunities in Tier II cities such as Ahmedabad, Jaipur and Kerala.
Ashmi Holdings, which manages the Bristol Hotel, an upscale business hotel in the business city of Gurgaon, (recently renamed Gurugram), has plans to lunch upscale, midmarket and budget hotels in Tier III and Tier IV cities with a target of 1,000 keys by 2020.
Significant upside potential in the midscale and budget hotel segment
India has welcomed rising numbers of foreign tourists, with Foreign Tourist Arrivals exceeding 10 million last year, and the number is expected to grow in the coming years as the government rolls out favorable measures as part of its effort to double Foreign Tourist Arrivals to 20 million by 2020.
However, the country’s tourism and hospitality sector is largely driven by domestic travelers and domestic hotel demand has historically been higher than inbound demand as domestic travelers account for a larger share of India’s travelers.
During the period 1991-2016, domestic visits to all Indian states grew at a CAGR of 13.03%, far outpacing foreign visits which increased at a CAGR of 8.25% during the same period according to data from India’s Ministry of Tourism driven by rising domestic travel among India’s swelling numbers of travel-hungry middle class citizens – a relatively price-sensitive and value conscious demographic who opt for hotels in the mid-scale and budget categories.
This trend is likely to continue as India’s middle class rise grows and their disposable incomes increase, which should increase their propensity to travel as well as their travel spend which currently accounts for about 88% of the tourism sector’s contribution to India’s GDP.
The opportunity in India’s midrange hotel sector has attracted the likes of companies such as Lemon Tree Hotels (NSE:LEMONTREE) and Royal Orchid Hotels (NSE:ROHLTD) which expanded their midscale offerings, thereby driving up the country’s midscale room inventory over the past several years; in 2002, some 6,000 of the 26,000 branded hotel rooms in India – less than 25% percent – were mid-market hotel rooms. By 2017, mid-market hotel rooms jumped nine-fold to 53,200, accounting for 43% of the total branded hotel rooms in the country which increased five-fold to 125,000 according to data from hospitality consulting firm Horwath HTL.
Apeejay Surendra, plans to expand its ‘Zone by the Park’ midscale hotel brand in Tier II and Tier III towns, positioning the hotel as a price and design conscious offering.
Goldman Sachs-backed hotel investment firm SAMHI Hotels Ltd plans has plans to acquire hotel assets around the country, mostly in Tier I and Tier II cities.